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  1. Survey reveals hydration deficit among French schoolchildren
  2. The cancer risk to people who drink chlorinated water is 93 percent higher than those who don't
  3. The Bottled Water Scandal
  4. Chlorinated Water Can Affect Cancer Risk
  5. Chlorine in tap water linked to increase in number of people developing food allergies
  6. Chlorine in tap water "nearly doubles the risk of birth defects"
  7. Is your daily shower making you sick?

Survey reveals hydration deficit among French schoolchildren

In France, 62.2% of children aged between nine and 11 arrive at school in the morning with a hydration deficit, according to a Nestlé survey carried out in March 2010 on a sample of 529 French school children.

Nestlé Waters France launched a survey on French school children aged between nine and 11 to find out if children were properly hydrated before going to school. This was the first survey of its kind, since there was no information on the hydration status of French school children, Nestlé said.

The survey consisted in taking a urine sample at least 30 minutes after breakfast to measure urine osmolality. A questionnaire established the type and quantity of foods and drinks consumed during breakfast.

The purpose of these measurements was to investigate the hydration status of a sample of children based on urine osmolality in the morning and analysing the correlation between this urine osmolality and the food and drinks consumed.

The average age of the children was nine and a half, with an almost equal number of girls and boys. Based on criteria published by the International Obesity Task Force, 27.7% of the children were overweight and 5.5% obese.

While the majority (90%) of the children had eaten breakfast, 10% had consumed nothing (foods and drinks). Breakfast was balanced and mostly consisted of carbohydrates and a variety of drinks including water.

Almost two thirds (62.2%) of the children in the survey had a hydration deficit, reflected by urine osmolality of more than 800mOsmol/​kg of water. This deficit concerned boys (72.5%) more than girls (51.6%).

The majority of the children (73.5%) had drunk less than 400ml of fluids (water and other drinks) at breakfast and had a higher risk of high urine osmolality after breakfast. The study concluded that the volume of fluids consumed at breakfast is insufficient to maintain adequate hydration throughout the morning until lunchtime.

This survey reveals for the first time that around two thirds of French children aged nine to 11 have a hydration deficit when they go to school, despite having breakfast. The amount of fluids consumed at breakfast is not sufficient to ensure good hydration throughout the morning, hence the need for an additional fluid intake before lunchtime.

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Source: Nestlé Waters


"The cancer risk to people who drink chlorinated water is 93 percent higher than those who don't"

Dear friend concerned about chlorine,

What if that clear, clean-looking liquid you use every day – to quench your thirst, to bathe and shower in, and to wash your dishes and laundry in contributed to dozens of everyday ailments, including...

Truth is, the water we use in and around our homes is far from the fresh, pure resource you might assume. And the worst part is...

Americans are ingesting from 300 to 600 times what the Environmental Protection Agency considers a "safe" amount While chlorine itself is relatively benign, and was created to help keep us free from infectious diarrheas, it reacts with organic materials which already dissolve in water, forming chemicals (known as DBP's) that are over 100 times more toxic than chlorine.

Sounds pretty scary, doesn't it?

And considering the negative impact it is probably having on your family's well-being, wouldn't you want to know everything you can about this toxic cocktail in your water supply? Of course!

Well, the good news is world renowned physician and multiple New York Time's Best Selling author, Dr. Mercola, has gathered all the research about chlorine together in one place – and created one of the most important and time-sensitive reports ever released to the public.

So what are the documented side effects of chlorine? The startling evidence could shock you into making choices which might just save your life...

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Source: U.S. Council of Environmental Quality


The Bottled Water Scandal

If you think you're protected because you drink bottled water – think again.

The truth is about 40 percent of bottled water is regular tap water.

And it gets even worse because while large public water suppliers must test for contaminants up to seven times a day, private bottlers need only test for contaminants once a week, once a year, or once every four years, depending on the contaminant.

In fact, contaminant testing on over a hundred different bottled waters has turned up chemicals like arsenic and carcinogenic compounds, fluoride (a dangerous bone poison), the toxic metal antimony, disinfection byproducts like THMs, and pharmaceutical drugs.

To add insult to injury, the chemicals that leach out of bottled water's plastic packages are also highly toxic.

Don't end up a victim of the bottled water hype. Find out about the open fraud the fat cats in bottled water companies are getting away with by getting your free copy of "Is Your Water Safe" right away!

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Source: U.S. Council of Environmental Quality


Chlorinated Water Can Affect Cancer Risk

Lifetime consumption of chlorinated tap water can more than double the risk of bladder and rectal cancers in certain individuals, two new studies conclude.

Both studies examined the lifetime water-consumption patterns, diets and lifestyles of over 2,200 middle-aged and elderly Iowans suffering from either bladder, colon, or rectal cancers. Those profiles were then compared with those of a pool of nearly 2,000 healthy 'controls'.

Recent research has suggested that chlorine reacts with naturally-found organic compounds in water to form what the study authors call "chlorination byproducts."

They say many of these byproducts are "mutagenic and/or carcinogenic." The first study found that smoking men who drank chlorinated tap water for more than 40 years faced double the risk of bladder cancer compared with smoking men who drank nonchlorinated water. Women who drank chlorinated water, on the other hand, had only slightly raised risks for bladder cancers, regardless of (their) smoking status.

The second study found that rates for rectal cancers for both sexes escalated with duration of consumption of chlorinated water. Individuals on low-fiber diets who also drank chlorinated water for over 40 years more than doubled their risk for rectal cancer, compared with lifetime drinkers of nonchlorinated water.

Similar differences were also found between the risk patterns of chlorinated-water drinkers who exercised at least once a week, and those who exercised just once a month, or less. Experts have long recommended regular exercise as one means of reducing one's risk of rectal and other cancers.

The study found no link between the long-term consumption of chlorinated tap water and the incidence of colon cancer. This was not surprising, the researchers explain, since colon tumors have very different patterns of genesis and development compared with rectal tumors.

They speculate that the source of chlorinated tap water may help determine its potential to promote cancers.

Since surface water (such as that found in lakes and reservoirs) usually contains higher concentrations of organic compounds, the study authors say it is also more likely to contain higher levels of (potentially carcinogenic) chlorination byproducts, compared with water sourced from deep underground.

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Source: U.S. Council of Environmental Quality


Chlorine in tap water linked to increase in number of people developing food allergies

Chlorine in tap water has been linked to the rising number of people developing food allergies, a study has revealed.

The chemical, which is used to treat drinking water and is also present in commonly-available pesticides and household items, may weaken food tolerance in some individuals.

Researchers found adults with high levels of dichlorophenol – a chemical by-product of chlorine – in their urine, were up to 80 per cent more likely to have a food allergy.

Much of the water supply in Britain is chlorinated to kill germs, although experts say it is at much lower levels than in the U.S.

Britain has seen a rise in food allergies in recent years, with up to ten million adults claiming to be unable to eat a variety of foods from milk to mustard – although scientists believe the figure may be exaggerated by the 'worried well'.

Studies also estimate that four per cent of children have a food allergy. A rising number are diagnosed with gut allergies linked to common foods such as cow's milk, wheat, soya, eggs, celery, kiwi fruit and other fruit and vegetables.

Food allergy can take the form of a sudden life-threatening reaction known as anaphylaxis, as well as eczema or an itchy rash. Much of the water supply in Britain is chlorinated to kill germs, although experts say it is at much lower levels than in the US.

They point out that, for British households at least, certain common household products are more likely to be sources of dichlorophenol than tap water.

Professor Jeni Colbourne, the chief inspector of drinking water, said strict regulations in the UK meant dichlorophenol is unlikely to be found in household taps.

She said its likeliest source for British consumers were household products impregnated with triclosan, commonly used in lipsticks, face washes, toothpaste and kitchen utensils. An anti-bacterial, it can break down to form dichlorophenol.

Food allergy can take the form of a sudden life-threatening reaction known as anaphylaxis, as well as eczema or an itchy rash.

In a study of 2,211 American adults with the chemical in their urine, 411 were found to have a food allergy, while 1,016 had an environmental allergy.

The research, published in journal of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, concluded: "Excessive use of dichlorophenols may contribute to the increasing incidence of food allergies in Westernised societies. This chemical is commonly found in pesticides and consumer insect and weed control products, as well as tap water."

Lead author Dr Elina Jerschow added: "Previous studies have shown that both food allergies and environmental pollution are increasing in the United States. Our study suggests these two trends might be linked, and that increased use of pesticides and other chemicals is associated with a higher prevalence of food allergies."

Professor Colbourne insisted: "Currently in the UK consumer, exposure to dichlorophenol via tap water is considered to be minimal. In the US generally chlorination is known to be less well controlled and relatively high doses of chlorine are used, so it would be reasonable to consider the risk of exposure to be generally higher. In the UK exposure is more likely to come from other, non-tap water sources."

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Source: U.S. Council of Environmental Quality


Chlorine in tap water "nearly doubles the risk of birth defects"

Pregnant women living in areas where tap water is heavily disinfected with chlorine nearly double their risk of having children with heart problems, a cleft palate or major brain defects, a new study has found.

Scientists say expectant mothers can expose themselves to the higher risk by drinking the water, taking a bath or shower, or even by standing close to a boiling kettle.

The danger comes from chemical by-products in chlorinated water known as trihalomethanes, or THMs, which can be absorbed through the skin. They can then pass into the womb.

At risk: Scientists have now linked chlorinated water to specific birth defects<

THMs form because of a chemical reaction between chlorine and natural substances in the water.

They exist in mains water across Britain – but are highest in areas where more chlorine is added because the water quality is poor.

Earlier studies linked chlorinated water to an increased risk of stillbirth, miscarriage, birth defects and bladder cancer. But this is the first time that the risk has been narrowed down to specific birth defects.

Although a major study in 2007 by Imperial College, London, into birth defects and THM levels in Britain uncovered "little evidence" of a link, the new research appears to contradict its findings.

A research team led by Professor Jouni Jaakkola of the University of Birmingham analysed the birth registry details of nearly 400,000 babies born in Taiwan between 2001 and 2003. Levels of chlorine found in water there are similar to those found in the UK.

Scientists compared the number of birth defects recorded by doctors to the level of THMs in the drinking water in different areas.

The proportions of certain specific defects were much higher in areas where levels of THMs were above 20 micrograms per litre.

The brain condition anencephalus, usually found in 0.01 per cent of births, rose to 0.17 per cent in high-THM areas.

Hole-in-the-heart defects also nearly doubled from 0.015 per cent to 0.024 per cent.

The number of cleft palates rose from 0.029 per cent to 0.045 per cent in high-THM areas.

Overall, the risks of having children with these three defects increased by between 50 per cent and 100 per cent.

There was also a slightly raised risk of urinary tract defects and Down's syndrome.

The study appears in Environmental Health journal next week.

The number of defects could be much higher as some are not detected until later in childhood.

THM levels across Britain vary widely even within one water company area. They range from 92 micrograms per litre in south Staffordshire to just five in Hartlepool.

Most areas have levels way above the "high" range in the Taiwan study. High levels were recorded in South-West England, Yorkshire and North-East Essex.

Prof Jaakkola said THMs should be cut because the biological reasons for the defects were unknown.

He said: "Our findings don't just add to the evidence that water chlorination may cause birth defects but suggest that exposure to chlorination by-products may be responsible for some specific and common defects."

Barrie Clarke, spokesman for Water UK, reassured consumers that water companies' work was in line with the best existing information on THMs.

But he added: "There will be no closed minds about this new information."

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Source: U.S. Council of Environmental Quality


Is your daily shower making you sick?

The quality of our drinking water is a major determinant of our health and wellbeing. It is important to consider not only the presence of pathogens or contaminants, but also the routine addition of chemicals that may cause us harm. Chlorine is a chemical typically used as a disinfectant in public water supplies as an effective way to reduce the level of pathogenic bacteria in our drinking water.

Unfortunately, this chemical, and other common chemical disinfectants, may have a damaging impact on our bodies' beneficial bacteria as well.

When chlorine is used as a water treatment, it combines with organic matter to form compounds called trihalomethanes (THMs), also known as disinfectant byproducts. One of the most common THMs formed is chloroform, which is a known carcinogen. Other THMs formed include the di- and trichloramines formed when chloramine is used as a disinfecting agent. These compounds are toxic when consumed, inhaled, or applied to the skin.

Research conducted on the health effects of chlorinated drinking water have demonstrated a variety of toxicity issues. Several studies have found that communities using chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water have an increased risk of bladder, kidney, and rectal cancers. THMs from chemically treated water have been associated with a variety of poor birth outcomes, such as spontaneous abortion, birth defects, and low birth weight. Chlorine and chloramine vapors are associated with greater risk of asthma, and may damage the mucosal lining of the respiratory tract. Free radicals in chlorinated water have been linked to liver malfunction, weakening of the immune system and pre-arteriosclerotic changes in arteries.

While there hasn't been substantial research on the topic, it's reasonable to assume that chlorinated water adversely affects beneficial intestinal flora. Chlorine is a powerful antimicrobial agent, and is an effective pesticide against many different strains of bacteria. The compounds in disinfected water may be able to reach the gut not only through our drinking water, but also through daily showers and baths.

A recent post at the Food Renegade blog brought this disturbing theory to light, not only highlighting the harmful effects of chlorinated drinking water, but emphasizing the possibly greater effect that showers and baths could have on our intestinal flora. As we know, there's a strong connection between asthma, acne, autoimmune conditions and the health of our gut flora. We might speculate that dysbiosis induced or made worse by excess chlorine exposure could contribute to these conditions.

Showering and bathing in chlorinated water may expose us to even more chlorine and its byproducts than drinking this disinfected water. While our bodies can filter out much of the chlorine from our drinking water, the THMs and other disinfectant byproducts we inhale during showers and baths may be much more harmful, since the chlorine gas we inhale enters directly into our blood stream. Therefore, even if you filter your drinking water, the amount of toxins you are exposed to from your daily shower or bath, through inhalation or skin absorption, may be cause for greater concern.

Research has demonstrated that the cancer risk associated with chlorinated water may actually be due to showering and bathing, rather than drinking the disinfected water. This suggests that many health risks of chlorine may be specifically related to dermal and inhalation exposure. In fact, the chloroform dose from a single, ten minute shower is equal to, and possibly greater than, that from the average two liters of water ingestion on a daily basis.

Therefore, the filtration of your shower and bath water may be even more important than the water you drink. Chlorine filtration is fairly simple, provided you use some level of technology to remove it from your shower or bath water. There are resources on the Food Renegade blog about where to find chlorine-filtering shower heads and bath filters. This includes the Rainshow'r Shower Filter and the Crystal Ball Bath Dechlorinator, both sold by the Radiant Life Company.

I'd like to point out that chlorine isn't in everyone's water supply, but there is another disinfectant that is also of concern. I checked my local water company's website, and discovered they use chloramine (chlorine + ammonia) to disinfect the water supply. Chloramine exposure may be even more damaging to the lung epithelium than chlorine, and may release ammonia as another toxic byproduct as well.

The filters that remove chlorine don't necessarily remove chloramine. Chloramine can be removed for drinking water purposes by a carbon block or activated carbon filter that can be installed on a kitchen faucet. Also, both chlorine and chloramine can be removed for bathing purposes by dissolving Vitamin C in the bath water. One 1000 mg Vitamin C tablet will neutralize chloramine in an average bathtub.

There are no shower filters on the market that completely remove chloramine. There are, however, whole house water filters that remove chlorine, chloramine, and other contaminants. Unfortunately, they're quite expensive and thus may not be an option for many people.

Vitamin C shower filters may be a good choice for those looking for an inexpensive way to reduce the chloramine (and chlorine) content of their showers. Vitamin C is an effective dechlorination agent, removing up to 99% of chlorine and chloramine, and vitamin C filters are much less expensive than the whole house filter featured above. The disadvantage to using them is they're not as durable or effective as a whole house filtration system, and you would need a separate filter for each shower outlet in the house.

Other simple methods to reduce exposure to chlorine and chloramine include: taking shorter or less frequent showers, avoiding excessively hot showers (since high heat increases the amount of steam), and shutting the water off while soaping up. These techniques will help decrease your exposure if filtration or dechlorination is not an option.

I recommend you check with your local water supply company to determine what disinfecting agents they use to sanitize your tap water. You can then use that information to make a decision about which shower filter is most appropriate for you and your family. Until we know more about how chlorinated water affects our health, and especially our beneficial gut flora, it seems prudent to keep chlorine and chloramine exposure to a minimum.

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Source: U.S. Council of Environmental Quality

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